River system in Himachal Pradesh
Himachal possesses natural resources in abundance. These resources play an important role in the state’s economy. The rivers flow through mountains, valleys and spread in plains. These rivers are lifeline for the state agriculture. They are a rich source for irrigation and electricity production not just to be consumed by the state inhabitants but different states of the country. Here is everything you need to know about the river system in Himachal Pradesh.
VEDIC (SANSKRIT) NAMES OF RIVERS IN HP
1. Present day Satluj was known as Satudri, Satudru or Saturdai
2. Ravi was known as Parushani or Iravati
3. Yamuna as Kalinidi or Yamunotri
4. Beas as Arjikiya or Vipasha
5. Chenab was known as Asikni or Chandrabhaga
SOURCE OF ORIGIN OF RIVERS
Satluj originates from Mansarovar (Tibet) (Rakas lake)
Beas originates from Rohtang pass (Beas Kund in Pir Panjal range)
Ravi originates from Bara Bhangal
Chenab originates from Baralacha
Yamuna originates from Yamunotri (from Kalind Parvat in Utter Kashi)
RIVER’S LENGTH OF COURSE IN H.P. and THEIR TRIBUTARIES
Satluj (320 km) Bipasa, Ali Khad, Gambhar, Seer khad, Tirung, Gayanthing, Baspa, Duling, Soldang , Spiti(River originates from Kunzum pass), Ropa, Taiti, Nogli Stream, Bhaira ,Kingol, Jibhi khad, Soan, Mulgan, Kashang and Kerang streams.
Beas (256 km) Parbati, Spin, Solang, Sujaan, Malana Nala, Phozal, Sarvari stream, Binwa, Neugal, Banganga, Gaj, Dehr, Chakki, Kunah, Maan, Baner, Luni, Sainj, Tirthan, Harli, Hansa, Uhl and Nyugal.
Ravi (158 km) Bhandal, TantGiri, Siul, Budhill,Chirchind Nala, Deaonthal Nala,Baira river, Sal and Chatrani.
Chenab (122 km) Chandra, Bhaga, Miyar Nallah of Lahaul, Saicher Nallah in Pangi Valley.
Yamuna (22 km) Giri (Basically Giri river divides sirmaur in two parts), Jalal (Basically tributary of Giri) Tons, Pabbar(Basically tributary of tons), Andhra( Basically tributary of Pabbar) ,Bata, Chambal, Betwa, Markandya and Patsari .
IMPORTANT KEY-POINTS ABOUT EACH RIVER
- The Eastern-most river is Yamuna and mythical associated with the Sun God
- Yamuna enters in H.P. at Khader Majra (Sirmaur)
- Tons rises from Valley of Har-ki dun (Feeder stream are Supin and Rupin)
- Tons joins Yamuna at a place Kalsi in Dehradun valley
- The river divides the Sirmaur district into two equal parts known as Giri (Cis-Giri and Trans-Giri)
- Giri joins the Yamuna in Paonta below Mokkampur
- The human settlement that have sprung up along the Giri river are Yashwantnagar ,Dadahu (Renuka), Sataun
- Pabber is the tributary of Giri
- Pabber river rises from Chandernahan lake near Chansal peak in Rohru (Dhauladhar range)
- Giri river rises from Kupar peak near Jubbal
- The Bata river originates from Dharthi range (lower slope of Nahan ridge)
- Yamuna finally drained into the Bay of Bengal
- Longest river of H.P.
- Satluj enters in Himachal from Tibet near a village Namgia at a place called Shipki-la (6608 m). This is a famous Shipki-la Pass.
- The river freezes occasionally in winter Spiti (tributary of Satluj).
- Main settlements on Spiti bank are Hansi and Dhankar Gompa.
- Baspa river originates from Baspa Hills.
- Satluj leaves Kinnaur district and entered in dist. Shimla at Chauhra.
- Satluj touches Kullu dist. At Nirmand tehsil (opposite to Rampur tehsil).
- Satluj enters Mandi district at Firnu.
- Tributaries of Satluj in distt. Mandi: Sinu, Bahlu Katlu, Behna, Siman, Bantrehr, Khadel, Bhagmati.
- Satluj enters Bilaspur district at Dehar.
- Satluj leaves Himachal and entered Punjab at Bhakra.
- Important hydroelectric project located on Satluj are prestigious Bhakra Dam, Nathpa Jhakri, Rongtong, Sanjay Vidyut Pariyojna (Bhaba), Andhra, Binwa, Bassi, Baspa stage 1 and 2, Ghanvi Project.
- River known as the brother of Baspa is Satluj.
- Flood in river Satluj devastated Bilaspur town in 1762 A.D.
- 256 Villages got submerged during the formation of Bhakra Dam.
- Satluj finally drained into Indus.
- Districts on the bank of Beas river: Kullu , Mandi , Hamirpur and Kangra
- Beas leaves Himachal and entered Punjab at Mirthal
- Tirthan river join Beas at Larji.
- Tirthan rises from Pir-Panjal range.
- Main tributary of Beas is Parvati river join Beas at Shamshi.
- Sainj river join the Beas river at Larji.
- Beas enters Mandi district at Bajaura.
- Beas leaves Kullu district at Nagwain.
- The river which was known as ‘River of Sorrow’ of Punjab but after constructed of Pong Dam it has now become a ‘Harbinger of Prosperity’ is Beas.
- The place where ‘Beas Rishi’ and ‘Beas Kund’ meet to form river Beas is Palachan village.
- Kunah is the tributary of Beas.
- Finally the Beas joins the river Sutlej at the south-western boundary of Kapurthala district of Punjab after a long course.
D. Ravi and Chenab
- Chamba is situated on the right bank of the river Ravi.
- Ravi leave Chamba and entered Punjab at Kheri.
- The name given to river Ravi by Greek historian of Alexander is Hydraster.
- Ravi merged in Chenab in Pakistan.
- Chandra and Bhaga meet to form river Chenab at Tandi (Lahaul).
- Chenab enters Pangi Valley of Chamba district at Rihund.
- Gold is found in the river Chandrabhaga.
- Finally, Ravi River empties itself into Chenab River at the southern part of Ahmedpur.
- River Chenab finally joins the Arabian sea.
E. Other Rivers
- Swan river is in district Una.
- Swan is also know as the ‘River of Sorrow’ in Una.
- Old name of river Swan is ‘Som-Bhadra’.
- River Imla rises in Mahun Dhong.
- Vimla river rises in Gudha.
- Imla and Vimla rivers meet Satluj in Karsog at Parlog.
- Greek used to call river Chenab as Asisenes.
- Chenab leaves Chamba and entered Jammu and Kashmir at Sansari Nala.
- The river Beas joins the satluj at Har –ka –Patun.
- The local name of rivers Chandra and Bhaga are: Chandra-Rangoli & Bhaga-Gara (punn).
- The largest river in term of amount of water is Chenab.
- Dain Kund is a place near Dalhousie from where one can have a full view on a clear day of three main river of Himachal namely Beas, Ravi and Chenab.
This article was an attempt to help the inhabitants know about the River system in Himachal Pradesh. Hope we remained successful in our endeavor. Please provide us feedback in the comment box below. Lot more coming your way. Thanks